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Free radicals and antioxidants

What are free radicals?

As I said in the last article, I will explain free radicals in this article. First of all, you may know that our bodies are made from small molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen calcium etc.. These molecules have atoms at the center. And these atoms contain a nucleus with a certain number of protons. Also there are electrons which are located around an atom like fogginess. But you might understand more easily if you image that electrons are located around an atom in a circle.


When the number of protons and electrons are equal, the molecule can be stable chemically. For example, hydrogen molecules have only one proton. That’s why if a hydrogen molecule has one electron, the hydrogen molecule can be stable. I’ll give you one more example to explain. Oxygen molecules have 8 protons. So if an oxygen molecule has 8 protons, the oxygen molecule can be stable chemically.


I said that a molecule with the certain number of electrons could be stable chemically. Actually, there are not many molecules which are stable in our bodies. They always give an electron and take an electron. Giving an electron is called reduction reaction and taking an electron is called oxidation reaction.


Free radicals are molecules which don’t have enough number of electrons. They tend to rub an electron from other molecules (usually from the neighbor molecule). And molecules which are rubbed an electron become unstable, so they tend to try to rub an electron from other molecules. This reaction is caused more and more. This is the mechanism of free radical products. The worst affection of free radicals is oxidative damages to DNA.

But as I mentioned in the last article, our bodies have adapted to dealing with free radicals since our ancestors started producing aerobic energy. The reason why our bodies can’t deal with free radicals 100% is below physic and psychic stresses:


  • Poor food and drinking water choices;

  • Air pollution;

  • Ultraviolet light

  • Use of unhealthy cleaning supplies, paint and cosmetics;

  • Pesticides;

  • Heavy metals;

  • Psychic stress (pressure, anger, anxiousness, etc.)

  • Physical stress (hard training, too much working, too less sleaping, etc.)

  • Radiation;

  • Drugs;

  • Tobacco;

  • Alcohol;

  • Medications.

In terms of physical stress, endurance athletes have to make more free radicals than normal people because endurance athletes need to produce a lot of aerobic energy. Nevertheless there are some things that endurance athletes can do to reduce oxidative stress.


Antioxidants

Antioxidants neutralize not only free radicals that you already have, but also prevent damages which come from potential free radicals you may get from now on. Typical antioxidants are below :

1. Antioxidative vitamins and co-factors: A, C, E, Co-enzyme Q10.

2. Antioxidative phytochemicals:

o Carotenoids: found in foods such as carrots, tomatoes, collard greens, mangos, paprika and spinach.

o Polyphenolic flavonoids: found in foods such as berries, green tea, apples, chocolate and red grapes.

3. Other antioxidative molecules: bilirubin, uric acid, an electron (hydrogen).


And some minerals such as manganese, copper, selenium, zinc optimize antioxidative enzyme which our bodies already have such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathinoine perioxidase. Especially selenium plays a key roll. There is a report that if the soil contains a lot of selenium, people who live there unlikely get cancers. Foods which contain high amount of selenium are fishes, chickens, garlic, whole-grain products and Brazil nuts.

ORAC (Oxidative Radical Absorbance Capacity)



ORAC is the index which shows how well a food can clean up free radicals. High ORAC foods are below (source : ‘’Warum Papaya kühlt und Zucker heiß macht‘‘ written by Prof. Dr. Michaela Döll) :

ORAC per 100g

Fruits

goji berry from 10000 to 30000

acai berry more than 5500

pomegranate more than 5000

raisin 2800

blue berry 2400

straw berry 1550

orange 750

cherry 680

Vegetables

cabbage 1700

garlic 1600

broccoli 900

red beets 900

onion 450

corn 400

Other than what I write above, dark chocolate, dark cocoa, plums, western pears, nuts, apples and Korean thistles contain high antioxidants.

Antioxidants are good for not only prevention for injuries or deceases but also antiaging. No matter what you do, you may think over to take more antioxidants!

Reference

‘‘Warum Papaya kühlt und Zucker heiß macht‘‘ written by Michaela Döll

‘‘ミトコンドリア革命‘‘ writen by 宇野克明




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ランニング書籍

講師紹介
​ウェルビーイング株式会社代表取締役
池上秀志

経歴

中学 京都府亀岡市立亀岡中学校

都道府県対抗男子駅伝6区区間賞 自己ベスト3km 8分51秒

 

高校 洛南高校

京都府駅伝3年連続区間賞 チームも優勝

全国高校駅伝3年連続出場 19位 11位 18位

 

大学 京都教育大学

京都インカレ10000m優勝

関西インカレ10000m優勝 ハーフマラソン優勝

西日本インカレ 5000m 2位 10000m 2位

京都選手権 10000m優勝

近畿選手権 10000m優勝

谷川真理ハーフマラソン優勝

グアムハーフマラソン優勝

上尾ハーフマラソン一般の部優勝

 

大学卒業後

実業団4社からの誘いを断り、ドイツ人コーチDieter Hogenの下でトレーニングを続ける。所属は1990年にCoach Hogen、イギリス人マネージャーのキム・マクドナルドらで立ち上げたKimbia Athletics。

 

大阪ロードレース優勝

ハイテクハーフマラソン二連覇

ももクロマニアハーフマラソン2位

グアムマラソン優勝

大阪マラソン2位

 

自己ベスト

ハーフマラソン 63分09秒

30km 1時間31分53秒

マラソン 2時間13分41秒

​ウェルビーイング株式会社副社長
らんラボ!代表
深澤 哲也

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経歴

中学 京都市立音羽中学校

高校 洛南高校

↓(競技引退)

大学 立命館大学(陸上はせず)

​↓

大学卒業後

一般企業に勤め、社内のランニング同好会に所属して年に数回リレーマラソンや駅伝を走るも、継続的なトレーニングはほとんどせず。

2020年、ウェルビーイング株式会社の設立をきっかけに約8年ぶりに市民ランナーとして走り始る。

感覚だけで走っていた競技者時代から一変、市民ランナーになってから学んだウェルビーイングのコンテンツでは、理論を先に理解してから体で実践する、というやり方を知る。始めは理解できるか不安を持ちつつも、驚くほど効率的に走力が伸びていくことを実感し、ランニングにおける理論の重要性を痛感。

現在は市民ランナーのランニングにおける目標達成、お悩み解決のための情報発信や、ジュニアコーチングで中学生ランナーも指導し、教え子は2年生で滋賀県の中学チャンピオンとなり、3年生では800mで全国大会にも出場。

 

実績

京都府高校駅伝区間賞

全日本琵琶湖クロカン8位入賞

高槻シティハーフマラソン

5kmの部優勝 など

~自己ベスト~

3,000m 8:42(2012)
5,000m 14:57(2012)
10,000m 32:24(2023)
ハーフマラソン 1:08:21(2024)

​マラソン 2:36:14(2024)

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